FA-16 Project 20 Final week

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Sultan Tahir

CUNY York College

Psych 200 – Final Project


These days’ people play different genre games. I’m Focusing on is the ability of how different individuals perceive information towards the same topics and how that relates towards logical thinking. The primary process I’m studying is how logical thinking could improve through a series of games that would consist of different types of study. However, the difference in this game would be one group would be assigned a series of different kinds of pictures and answer questions based on the pictures that students analyzed. The other game would be manipulated by the game consisting of sounds that students will listen to and would have to answer questions based on it. The group that will be focusing on both visual and auditory material will be manipulated to investigate patterns of behaviors and responses to certain questions by their solutions to problems that would be presented to them.

More research has to be done on different ways that students learn in class or how they remember things in class. The population of interest is 26 students. The large sample is used to get a more important more accurate conclusion of the study. The subjects sampled are students in High school. And the rest are students from different grades in high school All students are recruited based on their grades they’re at such as 9th graders. The conditions that were made were that half the students were experimental group other half would be controlled group.

Subjects were assigned randomly. Subject’s ages from 15-18 were included. The screening criterion that was used was their medical records that displayed whether they don’t have any learning disability. Students that were excluded were the one’s with learning disability such as those that have ADHD or autism, because my game is to see which way to learning is better visual or auditory. The average age of the subject’s was 15-18. There are the same amount of females and males in the group. The control group was also half women and half men. Ethnicity and education wasn’t important in this study. Subjects were motivated to participate by giving them course credit and paying them 10 dollars each, and also the prize gift at the end of the game. Materials that were used were medical history records, and board game materials. The control group listened to the audio in the game. The stimuli game that was used for the experimental students was pictures. Responses are measured through data collecting after each round of the game. It will be shown on the data if they gotten better over each round. There’s no other equipment that were used. Half of the subjects were experimental group with stimuli that looked at pictures. And the other half was the control group, which listened to audio during the game. Comparisons were made after the data was collected. Both groups were asked to play the games 10 times. They were given instructions verbally and visibly on the instructions of the game. Data was collected after each round of the game. If the experimental group had better results, then games do help students with pictures rather than sounds

For the Visual group the mean was 8.9 points and in the Sound group the mean was 5.9 points. The standard deviation for the visual group was 0.95, and for the sound group was 1.55. The amounts of participants were 13 in both the visual and the sound group. For the variance were 0.9025 in the Visual group and the sound group was 2.41. For the mean scores of points acquired by the visual group were 8.9 points in which the standard deviation was 0.95, and the mean scores of points acquired by the sound group were 5.92 points in which the standard deviation was 1.55.The results showed that participants that were looking at the pictures in the game were better than the students which were blindfolded and had a hard time remembering things. The t test showed a score of 27.8.

For the thesis of this experiment proved that students who were blindfolded had harder time remembering what they heard rather than students who looked at the pictures and had to remember them. With the students who had to remember what they saw, students in the 9th grade with easier pictures beat the students in the 11th grade that had to get harder pictures to remember during the game. 6 of the students in each round that were younger remembered the pictures or objects better than the 6 older students during each round. There were 10 rounds during the game. My results support the thesis by the scores that each student got. For example In the Visual group most students scored very high like 9 out of 10 rather than the sounds group where the average was a 6 out of 10. My experiment can solve a problem in education, as the experiment can give an insight on what’s more important such a visual aid or sound such as learning visually or learning by sound. This experiment advances the field, by making teachers understand how to teach students better. It can help people that want to learn something understand what’s more important, what’s a better way to study. Other studies in the field have shown that studying too hard can have a bad effect on the way you perform in class, such as obtaining low grades on the exam. Experiments such as the one I did will help students in the future find a better way to study and it will help them get high grades in classes. Some potential future experiments that are remaining to be solved are why students that have no learning disability are getting low grades. Future experiments will, help students do great in the future.


Works Cited



Nakamura, Kuninori and Yamagishi, Kimihiko “Individual rationality and social rationality: Logical thinking and the ultimatum game.”Web. 02 Janurary 2012



Hattie, J, Biggs, J, & Purdie, Effects of learning skills inventions on student learning: A meta- analysis. Review of educational research. 66(2), 99-136 1996



Toda, Masanao. “Fungus-eater Games: A Dynamic Approach to the Logic and Psychology of Decision Strategies.” XVIIth International Congress Of Psychology August 20-26, 1963, Washington, DC, 29 July 2013. Web.



Zhang, Jun. “Perspective-taking and Depth of Theory-of-mind Reasoning in Sequential-move Games.” Wiley-Blackwell Country of Publication: United States NLM ID: 7708195 Publication Model: Print-Electronic Cited Medium: Internet ISSN: 1551-6709 (Electronic) Linking ISSN: 03640213 NLM ISO Abbreviation, 04 Dec. 2015. Web.






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About Robert O. Duncan

I'm an Assistant Professor of Behavioral Sciences at City University of New York, with joint appointments in Neuroscience and Cognitive Neuroscience. I also have an appointment as a Visiting Scholar at New York University. My research interests include cognitive neuroscience, functional magnetic resonance imaging, glaucoma, neurodegenerative disorders, attention, learning, memory, educational technology, pedagogy, and developing games for education.

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